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Does Testosterone Really Give Caster Semenya an Edge on the Track?
Probably so, medical experts say.
But whether that means athletes like her should be barred from competitions is a fraught question.
The ruling prevents Caster Semenya, 28, an elite runner and Olympic champion from South Africa, from competing in those races because her testosterone levels are naturally very high.
She had challenged attempts to disqualify her from racing as a woman.
The science underpinning that decision is complicated, raising difficult questions about biology, fairness and gender identity.
Where does it come from in women?
In men, high levels of testosterone are made by the testes.
Much lower levels are produced in the adrenal glands, which rest above the kidneys.
Women also make testosterone in their adrenal glands, and in their ovaries.
But testes produce much more: Testosterone levels in men are 295 to 1,150 nanograms per deciliter winning percentage on slot machines blood, while the levels in the women are 12 to 61 nanograms per deciliter of blood.
Why would that matter to athletes?
Levine, who studies sex differences in athletic performance at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
It increases the number of red blood cells.
Why single out this hormone?
Most medical experts believe that testosterone is exceptional, not like a long arm span in a swimmer or another natural physical advantage.
Levine put sedentary young men and young women through a year of athletic training.
At the start, the men and women had similarly sized hearts.
Male champions in every sport are always much faster and stronger than women who set world records.
Elite female runners would never win races if they competed against elite men, according to Doriane Coleman, a former middle-distance runner who is now a law professor at Duke University.
Coleman the best performances of three female athletes who were the fastest 400-meter runners in history and were not injecting testosterone.
In 2017 alone, she found, more than 10,000 men and boys running 400-meter races beat the best times these women ever ran.
Image Doriane Coleman, a law professor at Duke University and former elite runner.
The question is how to ensure a level-playing field for female athletes, she said.
Lange for The New York Times Why did the sports court only rule on championship races from 400 meters to a mile?
The rule is consistent with a requirement that it be narrowly tailored to the evidence.
Their winning percentage on slot machines in the general population is just 1 in 20,000, meaning they were overrepresented by about 1,700-fold on the podium, https://jackpot-deposit-promocode.website/all/lara-with-horse-2-all-the-way-through-bonus.html study concluded.
Scientists believe that very high testosterone levels yield a competitive advantage to women in every sport.
Still, experts like Dr.
Levine — who were consulted by the International Association of Athletics Federations — endorsed a limited ruling, because the middle-distance races are where testosterone makes a clearest difference.
It is about allowing elite female athletes to compete on a level-playing field.
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Men and anyone with a testosterone level beyond the normal female range would compete in the open division.
It is Lausanne, Switzerland, not Zurich.
Gina Kolata writes about science and medicine.
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